The third-generation launch system used by India is called PSLV, or Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. It is the first liquid-staged launch vehicle in the country. After its first successful launch in October 1994, PSLV became India’s dependable and adaptable workhorse launch vehicle, with 39 consecutively successful launches through June 2017.
In addition to 209 satellites for foreign customers, the vehicle launched 48 Indian spacecraft between 1994 and 2017. Furthermore, Chandrayaan-1 in 2008 and the Mars Orbiter Spacecraft in 2013 were the two spacecraft that the vehicle officially launched to the Moon and Mars.
The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), a disposable medium-lift launch vehicle, was developed and is operated by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) (ISRO).
Variations on the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
ISRO created five PSLV variants with payload capacities ranging from 1,900 kilograms in a sun-synchronous orbit to 600 kilograms in low earth orbit (LEO) (SSO). The PSLV is a standard launch vehicle with a range of 622 kilometers and a payload capacity of 1,678 kilograms (sun-synchronous orbit).
Three sub-variants of PSLV exist PSLV (1), PSLV (2), and PSLV (3).
Design of PSLV launch vehicle
The PSLV was planned to be 2.8 meters in diameter and 450 meters tall. It has an inertial guidance system for guiding, navigating, and controlling altitude.
By inserting aqueous strontium perchlorate solution in the nozzle to create a secondary injection thrust vector control system (SITVC), which manages the roll amplification, the vehicle’s pitch and yaw are controlled during the solid booster’s thrust phase.
The vehicle also features two cylinder-shaped aluminum tanks for the solid rocket boosters’ injected fuel.
Roll control thrusters (RCT) were also installed during the first stage to control roll.
Launching Description for PSLV-XL
- The PS1 ignites at T+0, delivering 4846 kN of thrust.
- Within T+1, four of the six boosters ignite on the ground and produce 703 kN of thrust each. 7658 kN of the total thrust is produced by the PSOMs and PS1 working together to propel.
- Around T+23/26, the final two-lit boosters are air-lit, reaching the rocket’s maximum thrust potential.
- The first four ground-lit PSOMs are currently splitting and falling into the water at T+1:10 due to expended fuel. The PS1 and the other two PSOMs are still burning.
- At T+1:35, when the last two PSOMs complete their 70-second burn and detach, the missile is in a Core-Alone configuration.
- At T+1:50, the PS1 separates after completing its 110-second burn, and the PS2’s Vikas Engine ignites.
- Stage two ignites in approximately 130 seconds and extinguishes and separates at T+4 minutes.
- The fourth stage fires to give the rocket a major try into orbit at around T+8/10 minutes after stage three, a rocket motor launcher, separates after burning for 80 seconds.
- The size and weight of the payloads have a significant impact on the 4th stage burn’s length, which typically lasts 500 seconds. The 4th stage may shut down around T+16 to T+18 minutes. We tried to keep up with the payload deployment.
Research and Development for PSLV
Early in the 1990s, PSLV was created at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) in Kerala. On September 20, 1993, the PSLV made its inaugural flight, although the launch mission was unsuccessful owing to an altitude control issue in the second and third stages.
- The IRS-P2 satellite was successfully placed into SSO for the first time by the PSLV in October 1994. The SHAR launch facility in Sriharikota served as the launch site. Excellent launches included those in 1996, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011.
- The LEO and Chandrayaan programs, as well as the PSLV, were two of India’s most well-known launch vehicle programs.
- GSAT-12 was launched by ISRO aboard a PSLV-C17 rocket from Satish Dhawan Space Center on July 15, 2011.
- In order to study the tropical atmosphere, the Megha-Tropiques project was launched in October 2011 as part of PSLV-payload. C18’s The RISAT-1 satellite was launched by the PSLV-C19 in April 2012.
- The SPOT 6 satellite and the Japanese nanosatellite PROITERES were both launched by PSLV-C21 in September 2012.
- A variation of the PSLV-CA, the PSLV-C20, launched the Indo-French satellite SARAL and six commercial payload satellites in February 2013. Together with SARAL, ISRO launched its 23rd PSLV mission.
The 590-kg (1,300-pound) Chandrayaan-1 was launched on October 22, 2008, by the Satish Dhawan Space Centre on Sriharikota Island in Andhra Pradesh using a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. The probe was then launched into an elliptical polar orbit around the Moon, which had a diameter of 7,502 km (4,651 miles) at its closest approach and 504 km (312 miles) at its widest.